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Shraaddh Mahima

The Significance and Ritual of Shraaddha

Mahalaya Sraadh Paksha 23 sep to 7 Oct Pitru Moksha Amavasya

(Excerpts from Satsang of Pujya Bapuji & Scriptures)


The next life of a jiva is essentially determined by its previous Samskaras. Shraaddha, as such, is performed with the objective that a jiva may attain a better life in its next birth. The ritual, that is carried out with faith, accompanied by recitation of Mantras for satiating the manes, is known as Shraaddha. In this process, ‘Pindadaana’ is made to the manes with ‘Shraddhaa’; hence it is called ‘Shraaddha’. We gratefully perform Shraaddha for the manes who in turn help us circumvent obstacles in our lives.

In the Varaha Purana, Markandeya Rishi has described the ritual of Shraaddha to Gaurmukh Brahmin in the following words:

“O Excellent among Brahmins! One should invite Brahmins who know all the six Vedangas, who perform yajnas, who carry out penance in the midst of five fires and who adore their parents. One should also invite one’s sister’s children, daughter’s sons, father-in-law, sons-in-law, maternal uncles, an ascetic Brahmin, disciples and relatives.

The Vayu Purana states that, “One should not invite a Brahmin who betrays his friend, who has uneven nails or black teeth, who has illicit relationship with girls, who is an arsonist, who is held in disgrace by society, who sells ‘Somrasa’, a thief, a backbiter, the village priest, one who earns a living as a teacher, the husband of a remarried woman, one who has deserted his parents,( In Ancient times Caste was based on the Profession or Job a person does ,a Brahmin who does this kind of rituals, he or his family must not relay on anyone for thier daily bread. ) one who raises low caste children, one who has married a Shudra woman, and one who makes a living by conducting worship in temples.”

Method of Invitation

A conscientious man should send an invitation to self-restrained Brahmins one day before the actual day of Shraaddha. But if a virtuous Brahmin walks in uninvited on the day of Shraaddha, he too should be fed with equal honour. The host should wash the feet of all the Brahmin invitees. Then after washing his own hands he should offer water to them for Aachaman. Thereafter meals should be served to the Brahmins after seating them properly.

If the offering of food is to propitiate the manes, an odd number of Brahmins should be invited, and if it is for propitiating the gods, one should invite an even number of Brahmins. There is also a custom of inviting two Brahmins on such occasions; one to represent the manes and the other, the gods.

Yajna during Shraaddha

O Illustrious one! Take prior permission of the Brahmins present on the occasion and make three oblations of saltless food prepared from grains and vegetables to the fire. The first offering should be made chanting the mantra ‘agnaye kavyavâhanâya swâhâ’, the second one with somâya pitrimate swâhâ and the third one with the recitation of ‘vaivaswatâya swâhâ’. The food left over from the yajna should be distributed amongst all the Brahmins.

Serving foods during Shraaddha

The food prepared for the occasion should be tasty, sweet and properly cooked to the liking of the invitees. The host should serve the food in suitable utensils, and then request the invitees in a sweet and soothing tone, ‘O Illustrious ones! Kindly have your meals according to your liking.’

One should serve the food patiently and reverently without any irritation.

The Brahmins should complete the ritual of Shraaddha and then take the meal in total silence. If a Brahmin speaks or laughs during the meal, that portion of havishya is said to be usurped by the demons. While the Brahmins are having their meals, the host should constantly remember the name and form of Lord Narayana with sincere faith.

Recitation of Vedic Shraaddha Mantras

While the Brahmins are having their meals, one should recite the Rakshak, i.e. protective mantra, and scatter some sesame seeds on the floor. One should visualise those illustrious Brahmins as the manes.

The protective mantra is as follows:

‘Yajneshwaro yajnasamastanetâ bhoktâ avyayâtmâ haririshvaroastu

Tatsannidhânâdapayântu sadyo rakshâmsyasheÙâÔyasurâshcha sarve.’

‘Lord Shri Hari (Lord Vishnu) is present here who savours the offerings made in all sacrificial Yajnas. As such, in his pious presence there is no room here for the wicked demonic elements who should flee immediately.’ (Varaha Purana 14:32)

When the Brahmins are having their meals, visualise and make the sankalpa that your parents, grandparents, great grand parents are all present in those Brahmins, and may they be thus satiated.

It is a common knowledge that rupees can be transferred from here and delivered to other countries in their respective currencies. Similarly the fruits of Shraaddha and the oblations thereof are transferred to wherever and in whatever state the manes may be. But one very important thing is that the name of the ancestor, his father’s name and that of his lineage should be pronounced clearly.

According to the Vishnu Purana (3:16:16):

“The offerings of food, made in the course of Shraaddha with faith, and with name and lineage clearly pronounced, are duly delivered to those manes in the manner and form as may be conducive to them.”

Rules of Distribution of Food Grains

When the invited Brahmins have finished their meals, deposit a little of the food on the ground. The Brahmins should be provided with fresh water for Aachaman. Subsequently, ‘Pindadaana’ should be offered to the manes made from all kinds of grains available on earth with the prior concurrence of the satiated Brahmins. There is also the custom of ‘Balivaishwadeva’ at the end of Shraaddha.

Both at the beginning and the end of the Shraaddha ceremony, the following Mantra should be recited three times:

devatâbhyah pitribhyashcha mahâyogibhya eva cha.

namah svadhâyae swâhâyae nityameva bhavantu nah.

At the time of offering the ‘Pindadaana’, this mantra should be recited with concentration. This facilitates the quick arrival of the manes and fast departure of the demons. The mantra satiates the manes present in all three lokas and works towards their deliverance. At the end of the Shraaddha ritual, while offering charity to the Brahmin, one should keep black sesame seeds, barley and Kusha dipped in water in the hand so that the merits of Shraaddha duly reach the manes and the risk of demons taking those merits away is prevented. The Brahmin should be given grains of rice in his palms while reciting the following mantra. He too should be made to recite the mantra.

akshatam châstu me puÔyam shânti puÙtirdhritishcha me.

Yadichchhreyas karmaloke tadastu sadâ mama.

‘Let my virtue be eternal. Let me be blessed with peace, nourishment and patience. Let me be the recipient of all the propitious things in this world’. One may say a similar prayer oneself and also use different words for the same.

The presence of the manes can be solicited only through total faith. It cannot be achieved through mere rituals or objects. The process of Shraaddha involves invocation of the manes through proper and correct recitation of mantras, their names along with those of their respective fathers and lineage.

If during the stipulated fortnight of shraaddha one is unable to serve a full meal to the Brahmins, one can instead offer wild tubers, fruits and vegetables along with a nominal Dakshina. If even that is not possible, one may do by just paying obeisance to a Brahmin and offering him a handful of black sesame seeds or by simply pouring on the ground a Jalanjali mixed with seven or eight sesame seeds with devotion and care for the sake of the manes. If one is in utter poverty and unable to do even this much, one should feed plain grass equal to the meal for a day to a cow with love and reverential faith seeking to propitiate the manes. If one has absolutely nothing on hand, one should go to the jungle, raise up the arms, showing one’s armpit to the Sun as a sign of surrender and recite the following verse in a loud voice,

Na measti vittam na dhanam na chânyachchhrâddhasya yogyam svapitrinnatoasmi

tripyantu bhaktyâ pitaro mayaetao bhujao tatao vartmani mârutasya

“I neither possess material wealth nor any other means to perform the ritual of Shraaddha. Therefore I offer my salutations to the manes. May they be satiated with my devotion itself. I have raised both my hands to the sky.” (Varaha Purana 13:58)

The essence of all this is to emphasize that one must do Shraaddha (during the stipulated period for the same) for the manes, seeking their welfare. They are satisfied with whatever their Kinsmen offer with love and devotion, and in turn they help their lineage.

The best and the most auspicious period for performing Shraaddha is the specified fortnight meant for Shraaddha. One must perform Shraaddha on the very same lunar day on which one’s forefather happens to have left his body. Our ancestors who have died and not taken a new birth, reside in Pitriloka or wander at other places. It is for their sake that the Pindadaana are offered.

The ritual of Pindadaana is not performed for children and sanyasis. As far as children are concerned, they do not have the sense of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ developed in them; and a Sanyasi on the other hand is supposed to have repudiated the illusion of considering oneself as the body. Since they have no affinity for their physical forms, no Pindadaana is necessary for neither of them.

The process of Shraaddha is not limited to the external symbolism of offering lumps of rice, but has a deeper philosophical and spiritual significance as well.

Those who have physically died live in a Pinda (body) of nine elements: four of the antahkarana viz. internal organ, mind stuff, intellect and ego and the five senses. They don’t have a physical body but do possess an ethereal body. They can show their forms but one cannot feel or touch them. They emotionally accept your offerings from a distance. They also inspire you from a distance; sometimes even appear in your dreams in order to guide you on the right path.

If the Pindadaana and the Shraaddha were all nonsense, then why would the manes appear in dreams and say, ‘We are distressed. Make an offering of Pindadaana for us so that we may be relieved from our attachment to this ethereal body and proceed to the next birth.’

Shraaddha is performed so that the manes may be satiated with our offerings made with reverence and recitation of mantras, and in turn bring good to us.

Every action creates a reaction.

If you talk nicely and politely to someone, with his welfare in mind, he in turn will talk to you with affection and your welfare in mind. If you get work done by others and turn away from them, then they will also ignore you in future. If someone has some physically handicapped or disobedient children who give a lot of trouble, it is said to be attributable to his not having satiated and worshipped the manes, or not having taken proper care of his parents. Thus he is said to be getting in return what he has given.

When Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was in jail he wrote, “I constantly get inspiration from Swami Vivekananda’s soul and for the last 15 days I have had the feeling that Swami Vivekananda’s astral form is providing me with guidance to make spiritual exploration of the subtle world.”

As he was practising the art of astral travel Shri Aurobindo felt that even the astral body of Ramakrishna Paramahansa was guiding him along that path.

One, who performs Shraaddha and makes offerings with reverential faith, is invariably benefited therefrom. The biggest advantage of performing Shraaddha is that it reminds one of the fact that the jiva exists even after death. The second advantage is that it helps in the redistribution of wealth in society. The poor are fed. Feasts, otherwise organized, have Rajasic or Tamasic food items, whereas the food, offered on the occasion of Shraaddha, promotes righteousness and inspires us to think of the other world and also enhances our devotion towards God.

Lord Rama also performed Shraaddha for his father Dasharatha, and the Enlightened Saint Eknathji Maharaj too used to perform Shraaddha for his late father.

While performing Shraaddha, the body, earnings, wife, place, mind, mantra and Brahmin, all these seven have to be absolutely pure. One should pay special attention to three things –piety, control over anger and avoiding hastiness.

For the purpose of performing Shraaddha, earnings from agriculture or business is considered the best source; money received against favours is considered to be of a medium standard and earnings from lending or through deceit are considered the worst. The gods and manes are satiated by offerings made from the best earnings; the medium earnings provide medium level satisfaction, whereas the worst earnings help those ancestors who are in the lower states of existence i.e. born in the lowest caste etc. It is said that the food, deposited here and there under the ritual of Shraaddha, help satiate our ancestors currently in animal forms.

A lot of importance is attached to mantra recitation in Shraaddha. Howsoever expensive be your offering, if the pronunciation and the intonation of the mantras are not correct, then the entire ritual goes waste. The pronunciation of the mantra as also the names of the manes concerned should be correct and clear enough.

If we don’t know or remember the actual tithi of the death of an ancestor, the Shraaddha for such manes should be done on the new moon day, because the new moon day is noon-time for the manes and noon is the time when everyone feels hungry.

Our good deeds purify the heart and bring progress and prosperity to our relatives. When a Hindu wife is virtually on the deathbed, she prays with folded hands to her husband, “If I have committed a misdemeanour please pardon me and kindly pray for my salvation.” If the husband happens to be departing first he also makes a similar request, “If, knowingly or unknowingly, I have been harsh to you, please forgive me and kindly pray for my salvation.” We think of each other’s salvation while we are alive, we do the same at the time of death and we continue to work for it even after death.

The performance of Shraaddha naturally inculcates the noble trait of gratefulness in its performer and helps him along the path of salvation even after death. The performance of Shraaddha satiates gods and the manes; and one, who performs it, also experiences a sense of inner satisfaction. Our ancestors have done a great deal for our well being and therefore if we work for their salvation, it is sure to give us a great sense of satisfaction and fulfilment.

Bhartiya Sanatan Sanskruti Indian culture espouses not only the welfare of the family and immediate clan, its concerns are not limited even to society or the nation rather, it aims and endeavours for the good of the entire universe.

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सातवां अध्याय


भगवान शिव कहते हैं – पार्वती ! अब मैं सातवें अध्याय का माहात्म्य बतलाता हूँ, जिसे सुनकर कानों में अमृत-राशि भर जाती है । पाटलिपुत्र नामक एक दुर्गम नगर है, जिसका गोपुर (द्वार) बहुत ही ऊँचा है । उस नगर में शंकुकर्ण नामक एक ब्राह्मण रहता था, उसने वैश्य-वृत्ति का आश्रय लेकर बहुत धन कमाया, किंतु न तो कभी पितरों का तर्पण किया और न देवताओं का पूजन ही । वह धनोपार्जन में तत्पर होकर राजाओं को ही भोज दिया करता था ।
एक समय की बात है । उस ब्राह्मण ने अपना चौथा विवाह करने के लिए पुत्रों और बन्धुओं के साथ यात्रा की । मार्ग में आधी रात के समय जब वह सो रहा था, तब एक सर्प ने कहीं से आकर उसकी बाँह में काट लिया । उसके काटते ही ऐसी अवस्था हो गई कि मणि, मंत्र और औषधि आदि से भी उसके शरीर की रक्षा असाध्य जान पड़ी । तत्पश्चात कुछ ही क्षणों में उसके प्राण पखेरु उड़ गये और वह प्रेत बना । फिर बहुत समय के बाद वह प्रेत सर्पयोनि में उत्पन्न हुआ । उसका चित्त धन की वासना में बँधा था । उसने पूर्व वृत्तान्त को स्मरण करके सोचाः
‘मैंने घर के बाहर करोड़ों की संख्या में अपना जो धन गाड रखा है उससे इन पुत्रों को वंचित करके स्वयं ही उसकी रक्षा करूँगा ।’
सांप की योनि से पीड़ित होकर पिता ने एक दिन स्वप्न में अपने पुत्रों के समक्ष आकर अपना मनोभाव बताया । तब उसके पुत्रों ने सवेरे उठकर बड़े विस्मय के साथ एक-दूसरे से स्वप्न की बातें कही । उनमें से मंझला पुत्र कुदाल हाथ में लिए घर से निकला और जहाँ उसके पिता सर्पयोनि धारण करके रहते थे, उस स्थान पर गया । यद्यपि उसे धन के स्थान का ठीक-ठीक पता नहीं था तो भी उसने चिह्नों से उसका ठीक निश्चय कर लिया और लोभबुद्धि से वहाँ पहुँचकर बाँबी को खोदना आरम्भ किया । तब उस बाँबी से बड़ा भयानक सांप प्रकट हुआ और बोलाः
‘ओ मूढ़ ! तू कौन है? किसलिए आया है? यह बिल क्यों खोद रहा है? किसने तुझे भेजा है? ये सारी बातें मेरे सामने बता ।’
पुत्रः “मैं आपका पुत्र हूँ । मेरा नाम शिव है । मैं रात्रि में देखे हुए स्वप्न से विस्मित होकर यहाँ का सुवर्ण लेने के कौतूहल से आया हूँ ।”
पुत्र की यह वाणी सुनकर वह सांप हँसता हुआ उच्च स्वर से इस प्रकार स्पष्ट वचन बोलाः “यदि तू मेरा पुत्र है तो मुझे शीघ्र ही बन्धन से मुक्त कर । मैं अपने पूर्वजन्म के गाड़े हुए धन के ही लिए सर्पयोनि में उत्पन्न हुआ हूँ ।”
पुत्रः “पिता जी! आपकी मुक्ति कैसे होगी? इसका उपाय मुझे बताईये, क्योंकि मैं इस रात में सब लोगों को छोड़कर आपके पास आया हूँ ।”
पिताः “बेटा ! गीता के अमृतमय सप्तम अध्याय को छोड़कर मुझे मुक्त करने में तीर्थ, दान, तप और यज्ञ भी सर्वथा समर्थ नहीं हैं । केवल गीता का सातवाँ अध्याय ही प्राणियों के जरा मृत्यु आदि दुःखों को दूर करने वाला है । पुत्र ! मेरे श्राद्ध के दिन गीता के सप्तम अध्याय का पाठ करने वाले ब्राह्मण को श्रद्धापूर्वक भोजन कराओ । इससे निःसन्देह मेरी मुक्ति हो जायेगी । वत्स ! अपनी शक्ति के अनुसार पूर्ण श्रद्धा के साथ निर्व्यसी और वेदविद्या में प्रवीण अन्य ब्राह्मणों को भी भोजन कराना ।”
सर्पयोनि में पड़े हुए पिता के ये वचन सुनकर सभी पुत्रों ने उसकी आज्ञानुसार तथा उससे भी अधिक किया । तब शंकुकर्ण ने अपने सर्पशरीर को त्यागकर दिव्य देह धारण किया और सारा धन पुत्रों के अधीन कर दिया । पिता ने करोड़ों की संख्या में जो धन उनमें बाँट दिया था, उससे वे पुत्र बहुत प्रसन्न हुए । उनकी बुद्धि धर्म में लगी हुई थी, इसलिए उन्होंने बावली, कुआँ, पोखरा, यज्ञ तथा देवमंदिर के लिए उस धन का उपयोग किया और अन्नशाला भी बनवायी । तत्पश्चात सातवें अध्याय का सदा जप करते हुए उन्होंने मोक्ष प्राप्त किया ।
हे पार्वती ! यह तुम्हें सातवें अध्याय का माहात्म्य बतलाया, जिसके श्रवणमात्र से मानव सब पातकों से मुक्त हो जाता है ।”

सातवाँ अध्यायःज्ञानविज्ञानयोग

।। अथ सप्तमोऽध्यायः।।
श्री भगवानुवाच
मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युंजन्मदाश्रयः ।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु ।।1।।

श्री भगवान बोलेः हे पार्थ ! मुझमें अनन्य प्रेम से आसक्त हुए मनवाला और अनन्य भाव से मेरे परायण होकर, योग में लगा हुआ मुझको संपूर्ण विभूति, बल ऐश्वर्यादि गुणों से युक्त सबका आत्मरूप जिस प्रकार संशयरहित जानेगा उसको सुन । (1)

ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ।।2।।
मैं तेरे लिए इस विज्ञान सहित तत्त्वज्ञान को संपूर्णता से कहूँगा कि जिसको जानकर संसार में फिर कुछ भी जानने योग्य शेष नहीं रहता है । (2)

मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये ।
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।।3।।

हजारों मनुष्यों में कोई एक मेरी प्राप्ति के लिए यत्न करता है और उन यत्न करने वाले योगियों में भी कोई ही पुरुष मेरे परायण हुआ मुझको तत्त्व से जानता है । (3)

भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च ।
अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा ।।4।।
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् ।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् ।।5।।

पृथ्वी, जल, तेज, वायु तथा आकाश और मन, बुद्धि एवं अहंकार… ऐसे यह आठ प्रकार से विभक्त हुई मेरी प्रकृति है । यह (आठ प्रकार के भेदों वाली) तो अपरा है अर्थात मेरी जड़ प्रकृति है और हे महाबाहो ! इससे दूसरी को मेरी जीवरूपा परा अर्थात चेतन प्रकृति जान कि जिससे यह संपूर्ण जगत धारण किया जाता है । (4,5)

एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय ।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा ।।6।।
मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किंचिदस्ति धनंजय ।
मयि सर्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ।।7।।

हे अर्जुन ! तू ऐसा समझ कि संपूर्ण भूत इन दोनों प्रकृतियों(परा-अपरा) से उत्पन्न होने वाले हैं और मैं संपूर्ण जगत की उत्पत्ति तथा प्रलयरूप हूँ अर्थात् संपूर्ण जगत का मूल कारण हूँ । हे धनंजय ! मुझसे भिन्न दूसरा कोई भी परम कारण नहीं है । यह सम्पूर्ण सूत्र में मणियों के सदृश मुझमें गुँथा हुआ है । (6,7)

रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः ।
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु ।।8।।
पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ ।
जीवनं सर्वेभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ।।9।।
हे अर्जुन ! जल में मैं रस हूँ । चंद्रमा और सूर्य में मैं प्रकाश हूँ । संपूर्ण वेदों में प्रणव(ॐ) मैं हूँ । आकाश में शब्द और पुरुषों में पुरुषत्व मैं हूँ । पृथ्वी में पवित्र गंध और अग्नि में मैं तेज हूँ । संपूर्ण भूतों में मैं जीवन हूँ अर्थात् जिससे वे जीते हैं वह तत्त्व मैं हूँ तथा तपस्वियों में तप मैं हूँ । (8,9)

बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् ।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।।10।।

हे अर्जुन ! तू संपूर्ण भूतों का सनातन बीज यानि कारण मुझे ही जान । मैं बुद्धिमानों की बुद्धि और तेजस्वियों का तेज हूँ । (10)

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम् ।
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ।।11।।

हे भरत श्रेष्ठ ! आसक्ति और कामनाओँ से रहित बलवानों का बल अर्थात् सामर्थ्य मैं हूँ और सब भूतों में धर्म के अनुकूल अर्थात् शास्त्र के अनुकूल काम मैं हूँ । (11)

ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये ।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ।।12।।

और जो भी सत्त्वगुण से उत्पन्न होने वाले भाव हैं और जो रजोगुण से तथा तमोगुण से उत्पन्न होने वाले भाव हैं, उन सबको तू मेरे से ही होने वाले हैं ऐसा जान । परन्तु वास्तव में उनमें मैं और वे मुझमे नहीं हैं । (12)

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत् ।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम् ।।13।।

गुणों के कार्यरूप (सात्त्विक, राजसिक और तामसिक) इन तीनों प्रकार के भावों से यह सारा संसार मोहित हो रहा है इसलिए इन तीनों गुणों से परे मुझ अविनाशी को वह तत्त्व से नहीं जानता । (13)

दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया।
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते।।14।।
यह अलौकिक अर्थात् अति अदभुत त्रिगुणमयी मेरी माया बड़ी दुस्तर है परन्तु जो पुरुष केवल मुझको ही निरंतर भजते हैं वे इस माया को उल्लंघन कर जाते हैं अर्थात् संसार से तर जाते हैं । (14)
न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः ।
माययापहृतज्ञानां आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ।।15।।

माया के द्वारा हरे हुए ज्ञानवाले और आसुरी स्वभाव को धारण किये हुए तथा मनुष्यों में नीच और दूषित कर्म करनेवाले मूढ़ लोग मुझे नहीं भजते हैं । (15)

चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन ।
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थाथीं ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ।।16।।

हे भरतवंशियो में श्रेष्ठ अर्जुन ! उत्तम कर्मवाले अर्थार्थी, आर्त, जिज्ञासु और ज्ञानी – ऐसे चार प्रकार के भक्तजन मुझे भजते हैं । (16)

तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते ।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ।।17।।

उनमें भी नित्य मुझमें एकीभाव से स्थित हुआ, अनन्य प्रेम-भक्तिवाला ज्ञानी भक्त अति उत्तम है क्योंकि मुझे तत्त्व से जानने वाले ज्ञानी को मैं अत्यन्त प्रिय हूँ और वह ज्ञानी मुझे अत्यंत प्रिय है । (17)

उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वातमैव मे मतम् ।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ।।18।।

ये सभी उदार हैं अर्थात् श्रद्धासहित मेरे भजन के लिए समय लगाने वाले होने से उत्तम हैं परन्तु ज्ञानी तो साक्षात् मेरा स्वरूप ही हैं ऐसा मेरा मत है । क्योंकि वह मदगत मन-बुद्धिवाला ज्ञानी भक्त अति उत्तम गतिस्वरूप मुझमें ही अच्छी प्रकार स्थित है । (18)

बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते ।
वासुदेवः सर्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः ।।19।।

बहुत जन्मों के अन्त के जन्म में तत्त्वज्ञान को प्राप्त हुआ ज्ञानी सब कुछ वासुदेव ही है- इस प्रकार मुझे भजता है, वह महात्मा अति दुर्लभ है । (19)
कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः ।
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया ।।20।।

उन-उन भोगों की कामना द्वारा जिनका ज्ञान हरा जा चुका है वे लोग अपने स्वभाव से प्रेरित होकर उस-उस नियम को धारण करके अन्य देवताओं को भजते हैं अर्थात् पूजते हैं । (20)

यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति ।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ।।21।।

जो-जो सकाम भक्त जिस-जिस देवता के स्वरूप को श्रद्धा से पूजना चाहता है, उस-उस भक्त की श्रद्धा को मैं उसी देवता के प्रति स्थिर करता हूँ । (21)

स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते ।
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ।।22।।

वह पुरुष उस श्रद्धा से युक्त होकर उस देवता का पूजन करता है और उस देवता से मेरे द्वारा ही विधान किये हुए उन इच्छित भोगों को निःसन्देह प्राप्त करता है। (22)

अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम् ।
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि ।।23।।

परन्तु उन अल्प बुद्धिवालों का वह फल नाशवान है तथा वे देवताओं को पूजने वाले देवताओं को प्राप्त होते हैं और मेरे भक्त चाहे जैसे ही भजें, अंत में मुझे ही प्राप्त होते हैं । (23)

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः ।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ।।24।।

बुद्धिहीन पुरुष मेरे अनुत्तम, अविनाशी, परम भाव को न जानते हुए, मन-इन्द्रयों से परे मुझ सच्चिदानंदघन परमात्मा को मनुष्य की भाँति जानकर व्यक्ति के भाव को प्राप्त हुआ मानते हैं । (24)

नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः |
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम् ।।25।।
अपनी योगमाया से छिपा हुआ मैं सबके प्रत्यक्ष नहीं होता इसलिए यह अज्ञानी जन समुदाय मुझ जन्मरहित, अविनाशी परमात्मा को तत्त्व से नहीं जानता है अर्थात् मुझको जन्मने-मरनेवाला समझता है । (25)

वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन |
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन ||26||

हे अर्जुन! पूर्व में व्यतीत हुए और वर्तमान में स्थित तथा आगे होनेवाले सब भूतों को मैं जानता हूँ, परन्तु मुझको कोई भी श्रद्धा-भक्तिरहित पुरुष नहीं जानता | (26)

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत ।
सर्वभूतानि संमोहं सर्गे यान्ति परंतप ।।27।।

हे भरतवंशी अर्जुन ! संसार में इच्छा और द्वेष से उत्पन्न हुए सुख-दुःखादि द्वन्द्वरूप मोह से संपूर्ण प्राणी अति अज्ञानता को प्राप्त हो रहे हैं । (27)

येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम् ।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः ।।28।।

(निष्काम भाव से) श्रेष्ठ कर्मों का आचरण करने वाला जिन पुरुषों का पाप नष्ट हो गया है, वे राग-द्वेषादिजनित द्वन्द्वरूप मोह से मुक्त और दृढ़ निश्चयवाले पुरुष मुझको भजते हैं । (28)

जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये ।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम् ।।29।।

जो मेरे शरण होकर जरा और मरण से छूटने के लिए यत्न करते हैं, वे पुरुष उस ब्रह्म को तथा संपूर्ण अध्यात्म को और संपूर्ण कर्म को जानते हैं । (29)

साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः ।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः ।।30।।

जो पुरुष अधिभूत और अधिदैव के सहित तथा अधियज्ञ के सहित (सबका आत्मरूप) मुझे अंतकाल में भी जानते हैं, वे युक्त चित्तवाले पुरुष मुझको ही जानते हैं अर्थात् मुझको ही प्राप्त होते हैं। (30)
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद् भगवदगीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे ज्ञानविज्ञानयोगे नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः।।7।।
इस प्रकार उपनिषद्, ब्रह्मविद्या तथा योगशास्त्रस्वरूप श्रीमद् भगवदगीता में
श्रीकृष्ण तथा अर्जुन के संवाद में ‘ज्ञानवियोग नामक’ सातवाँ अध्याय संपूर्ण।