ॐ नमो: भगवते वासुदेवाय |
The smallest Unit of time is 11 nimesha. Fifteen nimeshas make one kashtha. thirty kashthas are one kala and thirty kalas constitute one muhurta. There are thirty muhurtas in a span of day and night (ahoratra). Thirty such ahoratras make up a month. There are two pakshas (fornight) in every month. Six months constitute an ayana and two ayanas a year. There are thus twelve months in every year. The names of the two ayanas are Uttarayana and Dakshinayana.
While humans pass through uttarayana, the gods pass through only one day. Similarly. when humans pass through dakshinayana, the gods pass through merely one night. One year for humans is equivalent to a time span of one day and one night for the gods.
Twelve thousand years of the gods make up one mahayuga. This is subdivided into four yugas (eras). The names of these eras are Satya yuga or Krita yuga, Treta yuga, Dvapara yuga and Kali yuga. Satya yuga has four thousand years, treta yuga three thousand, dvapara yuga two thousand and kait yuga one thousand. This adds up to ten thousand years. But there are also periods that join two yugas: (sandhyamsha).
Satya yuga has a sandhyamsha of four hundred years, treta yuga of three hundred, dvapara yuga of two hundred and kali yuga of one hundred. There will therefore be seven hundred additional years between satya yuga and treta yuga, five hundred between treta yuga and dvapara yuga, three hundred between dvapara yuga and kali yuga and five hundred between kali yuga and the next satya yuga. These are two thousand additional years, and when added up to the earlier figure of ten thousand, make up twelve thousand years.
There are a little over seventy-one manvantaras (eras) in each mahayuga. Each manvantara is a time period that is ruled over by a Manu. The first Manu in the present kalpa (cycle) was Svayambhuva Manu and there were several other Manus after him. Each kalpa in fact passes during one of Brahma’s days and there are fourteen manvantaras in a kalpa. Stated differently, there are one thousand mahayugas in every kalpa.
Three hundred and sixty kalpas constitute one of Brahma’s years. One hundred times this time period is known as a parardha. At the end of this period. the whole universe is destroyed and Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are also destroyed. At the end of the destruction, creation starts afresh and this creation is known as sarga.
There is a smaller process of destruction that takes place at the end of every kalpa. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are not destroyed, but everything else is. The creation that comes at the end of this minor destruction is known as pratisarga.
The present kalpa is known as varaha kalpa. The one that preceded it was known as padma kalpa.
-Excerpts from Kurma Purana
The angular distance of a heavenly body from the celestial equator will be either negative if the planet is above the northern hemisphere, or positive, in case the planet is above the southern hemisphere. This is also commonly known as a declination or Ayana. Thus the Sun’s yearly movement is divided into two parts, called Uttarayana and Dakshinayana. The earth’s equator is tilted 23.45 degrees with respect to the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun, so at various times during the year, as the earth orbits the sun, declination varies from 23.45 degrees north to 23.45 degrees south. This gives rise to the seasons. Around December 21, the northern hemisphere of the earth is tilted 23.45 degrees away from the sun, which is the winter solstice for the northern hemisphere and the summer solstice for the southern hemisphere. Around June 21, the southern hemisphere is tilted 23.45 degrees away from the sun, which is the summer solstice for the northern hemisphere and winter solstice for the southern hemisphere. On March 21 and September 21 are the fall and spring equinoxes when the sun is passing directly over the equator. Note that the tropics of cancer and capricorn mark the maximum declination of the sun in each hemisphere. Each Ayana has three seasons.
The accurate method of knowing when uttarayana or dakshinayana starts is to calculate highest northan and southern declination of the sun. The dates mentioned below in 1 are based on this method. The other method of knowing dakshinaayana is when nirayana surya enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when nirayana surya enters Capricorn. Actual Ayanagati may not be observed exactly using this method. Most drika panchanga makers donot follow this method. Please remember right now ayanamsha is increasing every year by 50 seconds. Due to this our ritus should shift. But they are not shifting. If we follow nirayana method after some years you’ll wrongly mention winter ritu in summer and summer ritu in winter. That is very much inaccurate. The ritu follow declination not nirayana surya.
1. Drika Siddhanta:
Dakshinayana starts when sayana sun enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when sayana surya enters Capricorn. We need to use sayana surya in order to observe surya’s ayana gati.
2. Drika Siddhanta and Nirayana System
Dakshinaaya starts when nirayana surya enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when nirayana surya enters Capricorn. Actual Ayanagati may not be observed exactly using this method.
Among these two system ,Which one to use is the personal choice. Some people follow 1 and some follow 2. However sankranti decision is always done using 2 method. It’s just Ayana gati and Ritu they donot follow ayanamsha. Sun’s Ayana gati is always tropical. Ritus always follow tropical sun, not nirayana sun. However, some people will always make their panchangam using 2 for Dakshinaayana, Uttarayana and Ritu. Most modern panchangam will follow method 1.
Dakshinayana or Pitrayana is the nighttime of gods in Hinduism and it lasts for six months or till Makar Sankranti. Uttarayana period starts with Makar Sankranti and it is the daytime of Devas. A human year is equal to one day of gods in Hindu religion.
Reading & Listening Srimad Maha Bhagvatham is extremly beneficial during Dakshinayan
ॐ नमो: नारायणाय |
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