Mahaatma Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was an incarnation of Yama or Dharma Raja born as son of a nobel & pious women by the grace of Bhagvan Veda Vyaasa. In Mahabharata, Vidur is shown as an ideal devotee, a high class hermit, straight forward and a good statesman.
.Vidura was also the was half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu. Vidura was a true Rishi & a well known scholar of all shastras.
The story of Vidura
THE sage Mandavya who had acquired strength of mind and knowledge of the scriptures, spent his days in penance and the Practice of truth.
He lived in a hermitage in the forests on the outskirts of the city. One day while he was immersed in silent contemplation under the shade of a tree outside his hut of leaves, a band of robbers fled through the woods with officers of the king in hot pursuit.
The fugitives entered the ashrama thinking that it would be a convenient place to bide themselves in. They placed their booty in a corner and hid themselves. The soldiers of the king came to the ashrama tracking their foot steps.
The commander of the soldiers asked Mandavya, who was rapt in deepmeditation ‘ in a tone of peremptory command: “Did you see the robbers pass by? Where did they go? Reply at once so that we may give chase and capture them.”
The sage, who was absorbed in yoga, remained silent. The commander repeated the question insolently. But the sage did not hear anything. In the meantime some of the attendants entered the ashrama and discovered the stolen goods lying there.
They reported this to their commander. All of them went in and found-the stolen goods and the robbers who were in hiding.
The commander thought: “Now I know the reason why the brahmana pretended to be a silent sage. He is indeed the chief of these robbers. He has inspired this robbery.” Then he ordered his soldiers to guard the place, went to the king and told him that the sage Mandavya had been caught with the stolen goods.
The king was very angry at the audacity of the chief of the robbers who had put on the garb of a brahmana sage, the better to deceive the world. Without pausing to verify the facts, he ordered the wicked criminal, as he thought him, to be impaled.
The commander returned to thehermitage, impaled Mandavya on a spear and handed over the stolen things to the king.
The virtuous sage, though impaled on the spear, did not die. Since he was in yoga when he was impaled he remained alive by the power of yoga. Sages who lived in other parts of the forest came to his hermitage and asked Mandavya how he came to be in that terrible pass.
Mandavya replied: “Whom shall I blame? The servants of the king, who protect the world, have inflicted this punishment.”
The king was surprised and frightened when he heard that the impaled sage was still alive and that he was surrounded by the other sages of the forest. He hastened to the forest with his attendants and at once ordered the sage to be taken down from the spear. Then he prostrated at his feet and prayed humbly to be forgiven for the offence unwittingly committed.
Mandavya was not angry with the king. He went straight to Dharma, the divine dispenser of justice, who was seated on his throne, and asked him: “What crime have I committed to deserve this torture?”
Lord Dharma, who knew the great power of the sage, replied in all humility: “O sage, you have tortured birds and bees. Are you not aware that all deeds, good or bad, however small, inevitably produce their results, good or evil?”
Mandavya was surprised at this reply of Lord Dharma and asked: “When did I commit this offence?”
Lord Dharma replied: “When you were a child.”
Mandavya then pronounced a curse on Dharma: “This punishment you have decreed is far in excess of the deserts of a mistake committed by a child in igno- rance. Be born, therefore, as a mortal in the world.”
Lord Dharma who was thus cursed by the sage Mandavya incarnated as Vidura and was born of the noble servant-maid of Queen Ambalika, the wife of King Vichitravirya.
This was the cause of the Yama to be born as Vidura,he was a true Rishi from birth he never desired any royal positions all his life from the throne of the kingdom
Vidura was also the was half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu. He served his brothers as a chancellor. For his umatched quality of intelligence & nobel nature .
After Krishna, he was the most trusted advisor to the Pandavas and had warned them repeatedly about Duryodhana’s plots. In particular, he warned the Pandavas from Duryodhana’s plan to burn them alive in a house of wax he had made for them. He was known for speaking the truth and for his intelligence.
Vidura is famous also for being a true devotee of Lord Krishna. When Shri Krishna visited Hastinapura as a peace missary of the Pandavas, he shunned Duryodhana’s offer to stay in his stately guesthouse, instead choosing the humble dwellings of Vidura.
This story is intended to show that Vidura was the incarnation of Dharma. The great men of the world regarded Vidura as a mahatma who was unparalleled in his knowledge of dharma, sastras and statesmanship and was totally devoid of attachment and anger. Bhishma appointed him, while he was still in his teens, as the chief counsellor of king Dhritarashtra.
Vyasa has it that no one in the three worlds eould equal Vidura in virtue andknowledge.
VIDUR’S WIFE: SULABHA
Vidur’s wife was also a chaste woman of supreme order.Vidur also had tremendous devotion for Lord Krishna. She too had a high degree of devotion and abdication. When Lord Krishna visited Hastinapur as an emissary of Pandavas, he had not accepted Duryodhana’s request to stay in his palace but instead he chose to stay at Vidur’s home and accepted a simple meal there.
Due to her intense devotion towards Lord Krishna she forgot everything when Lord Krishna reached Vidur’s home.All her thoughts were focussed on one thing- what to offer the Lord for food? Bringing Krishna in, she made him sit on an inverted wooden seat (Peetha),and fetched some bananas to feed him. She herself peeled the bananas but instead of offering the pulp, she gave the skin of banana and threw away the pulp. Lord Krishna starves for love only! It is his promise also. Lord shri krishna accepted it with pleasure.
PATRAM PUSHPAM PHALAMTOYAM YO ME
BHAKTYA PRAYACHHATI |
PRAYATATMANAH ||(Geeta: (/26)
Thus the Lord began to eat the banana skin relishing it. Both of them were sunk in affection- Sulabha in giving, while Lord Krishna sank in imbibing that love. They both were in a trance like condition. Meanwhile, Vidur too arrived. For sometime he stood amazed then seeing his wife behaving in an absurd way, he scoffed at her. Sulabha thus came around and began to feel sorry and ridiculed Krishna.
CHHILAKA DINHE SYAMA KAHAN,
BHULI TANA MANA- GYANA |
KHAYE PAI KYON APNE,
BHULI GAYE KYON BHAN ||
Lord Krishna laughed at that simple ridicule of Sulabha and said to Vidur:”Vidurji, you have come at the wrong moment. I was having extreme joy. I have always been pining for such food that is filled with love. Thereafter Vidur himself began to feed Lord Krishna with banana pulp. Lord Krishna however complained, you have fed me banana pulp with such a lot of affection but I could not find in them the relishing taste that I got in the peel. Tears of bhakti then began to flow from Sulabha’s eyes.
Vidura the Counsellor
Duryodhana was the only person sullen of Vidur’s straight forwardness. But Vidur had lot of affection for Dhritarashtra. So despite continuous humiliation by Duryodhana, he stayed at Hastinapur. Both Pandavas and Kauravas were equal for him. But the religious?hearted Pandavas were specially dear to him and he always wished well for the Pandavas.
When Dhritarashtra gave his, permission for the game of dice, Vidura fell at his feet and protested solemnly: “O king and lord, I cannot approve of this action. Strife will set in among your sons as a result. Pray, do not allow this.”
Dhritarashtra also tried in manly ways to dissuade his wicked son. He said to him: “Do not proceed with this game. Vidura does not approve of it–the wise Vidura of lofty intellect who is ever intent on our welfare. He says the game is bound to result in a fierceness of hate which will consume us and our kingdom.”
But Duryodhana did not heed this advice. Carried away by his doting fondness for his son, Dhritarashtra surrendered his better judgment -and sent to Yudhishthira the fateful invitation to the game.which leaded the world to a terrible war.
In protest against the Mahabharata war, Vidura resigned from the post of minister.
After the great battle,he helped Yudhishtira
when he became ruler. Later, he accompanied Dhritarashtra, and his sisters-in-law Gandhari, and Kunti, when they left on their last journey to the forest. & atlast vidura went to Yoga Samadhi .
Viduras attempts to make his blind brother Dirdrashtra realise the goal of human life, namely, liberation from the cycle of birth and death. He experienced an uncontrollable agony that his brother was wasting the few remaining years of his life on earth.
His yogic vision told him that the Pandavas too will soon disappear; that the same Krishna who guarded them here will look after their best interest in the hereafter too. But, he surmised that the blind king will suffer more, after the departure of the Pandavas. He resolved to send that unfortunate brother out on pilgrimage and the ultimate realisation of his destiny. He did not want any delay to intervene. So, he slipped out in the darkness, without being noticed by any one, and walked straight into the residence of Dhritharashtra.
The blind king and his queen, Gandhari, were of course expecting Vidura to call on them, for they learnt that he had come to town. So, when Vidura stepped in, he embraced him and shed tears of joy. He could not contain himself. He listed one by one the calamities that overtook him and his children and lamented over their fate. Vidura tried to console him with the profound teachings of the scriptures. But, he soon discovered that the petrified heart of the old man will not melt at the application of cold advice; he knew that his stupidity can be overcome only by hard blows.
So, he changed the tune and resorted to blame and abuse. Hearing this Dhritharashtra was alarmed. He expostulated, “Brother! We are burning in agony at the loss of our hundred sons, and you prick the wound with sharp needles of your angry abuse. Even before we taste the joy of meeting you after so long a time, why do you try to plunge us deeper into distress? Why should I blame you for hard-heartedness? I am laughed at by all, blamed by all, I have no right to find fault with you”. With head bent and resting on his palms, Dhritharashtra sat in silence.
Vidura recognised this as the opportune moment for instilling the lesson of renunciation, which alone could save him from perdition. He knew that his purpose was beyond reproach, for, he wanted them to undertake pilgrimage to holy places and fill themselves with sanctity, and meet great and good men and recognise the Lord within and thus save themselves. So, he decided to use even stronger words with a view to transforming him and the queen. Though filled with pity at their forlorn condition, Vidura had in mind the dire days when they would need all the courage that Jnana alone could give them; so, he was determined to prod them into action. He said, “O foolish king! Have you no shame? Do you still find joy in earthly pleasures? Of what avail is it if you wallow in the mire until you die? I thought you had enough of it and more. Time is a cobra that lies in wait to sting you to death. You dare hope that you can escape it and live for ever. No one, however great, has escaped the sting. You run after happiness in this temporary world and you seek to fulfil your desires in order to get some paltry satisfaction. You are wasting precious years. Make your life worthwhile. It is not yet too late to begin the effort. Give up this cage called home. Dismiss from your mind the paltry pleasures of this world. Remember the joy that awaits you, the world that is welcoming you, the end of this journey. Save yourself. Avoid the foolish fate of giving up this life in the agony of separation from kith and kin. Learn to die with the thought of the Lord uppermost in the mind at the moment of departure. It is better far to die in joy in the thick of the blackest forest than die in distress in the palace of this capital city. Go, go and do Thapas. Get away from this place, this prison which you call, home”.
Vidura continued his admonition of Dhritharashtra: “You have reached this advanced age; but still, without any shame or hesitation, you are leading a dog’s life. You may not be ashamed of it, but, I am. Fie upon you! Your method of spending your days is worse than that of a crow”.
Dhritharashtra could not bear more. He cried, “O! enough, enough. Please stop. You are torturing me to death. These are not the words that one brother should address another. Hearing you, I felt you are not Vidura, my brother. He would not have reprimanded me so cruelly. For, is Dharmaraja, with whom I now am, a stranger? Have I taken refuge with an alien? What is this that you are saying? Why these harsh words! Dharmaraja is fostering me with great love and care; how can you declare that I am leading a dog’s life or a crow’s? It is a sin – if you entertain such ideas. This is just my fate, and nothing else.” Dhritharashtra bent his head and moaned.
Vidura laughed in derision. He said, “Have you no sense of shame that you should talk thus? Dharmaraja might, out of his goodness, care for you more than his own father. He might look after you with a love greater than your own sons. This is but the reflection of his character. That is but the amplification of the significance of his name. But, should you not plan for your own future? One leg of yours is already in the grave and you are blindly filling your stomach in comfort and rolling in luxury. Reflect for a moment how you tortured Dharmaraja and his brothers, to fulfil the wicked intentions of your vile sons, how you devised stratagems for their extinction. You put them in a wax house and set fire to it; you attempted to poison them. You insulted their queen in the most humiliating manner before a vast assembly. You and your abominable brood piled grief over grief on the sons of Pandu, your own brother. Blind, senile, thick-skinned elephant, you sat on the throne, perpetually asking those beside you ‘What is happening now? What is happening now?’ How can you stay in this place enjoying Dharmarja’s hospitality, rolling over your mind the iniquities perpetrated by you for his destruction? When you were devising their end, did they cease to be your cousins? Or, did the cousinship emerge now, when you came to them for stay? You tell me so proudly that they are treating you well, without a shred of shame!
Why speak so much? The disastrous game of dice took place at your initiative, isn’t it? Do you deny it? No. I was a witness to that game. I advised you against it then; did you take it to heart? What happened then to the love and sympathy which you are now freely pouring forth? Today, like a dog you are gulping the food the Pandavas are placing before you and leading this despicable life.”
Hearing these words of Vidura which pained him like hammer-strokes, Dhritharashtra developed a dislike for his style of living. Vidura’s intention was to prod him into the life of a recluse and the life of Sadhana, so that he might realise his self before it was too late. At last, he felt that Vidura was speaking the truth and giving him a true picture of his low nature. He said, “Brother! Yes; all that you have said is true. I admit. I have realised it now. But, what am I to do? I am blind and therefore, I cannot go into the forest for Sadhana alone. I must have a companion. What shall I do? For fear that I may suffer without food, Gandhari never leaves me even for a moment.”
Vidura saw that he had modified his attitude and had seen light. He emphasised his original advice. He said, “You have become blind due primarily to this attachment to the body. How long can you be burdened with it? It has to be dropped by the wayside some day, some place. Know that ‘you’ are not this body, this package of nauseating things. To identify yourselves with the physical frame is the sign of extreme foolishness. The body is being besieged perpetually by death with His army of diseases. But, you are unaware of it; you do not care for the pro and the con; you snooze your fill and snore. This drama has an end, remember. The curtain has to come down. So hie towards some holy place without delay and meditate on God and save yourself. Let death come and carry away your body there; that is the most excellent end. Do not die like a dog or fox, somewhere, somehow. Arise and go; develop detachment. Give up this delusion, escape from this house.”
Thus was planted in his heart the seed of renunciation. Dhritharashtra pondered long and broke into tears. His lips quivered. He moved his hands from side to side to contact Vidura. At last, he held his hands and said, “Vidura! What can I say to you who gave this most valuable advice, advice that is certain to promote my best interests? Though you are younger in age, your Jnana makes you senior to all of us. You have full authority to speak as you like. Do not consider me as someone outside your circle. Hear me with patience. I shall certainly follow your advice.” He then began to describe his condition to his brother.
“Vidura”, he began, “How can I leave from here, without informing Dharmaraja who is looking after me, with more care than even a son? It won’t be proper to do so. Then, he might insist on coming along with us; his nature is such. You must save me from this dilemma. Take me to a place where I can engage myself in Sadhana.”
When he pleaded thus, Vidura replied, “Your words sound strange. You are not going into the forest to eat banquets, to witness carnivals, or to enjoy true beauty of the scenery. You are giving up everything with a full sense of detachment. You are taking up a life of austerity and spiritual discipline. And, in the same breath, you are talking of ‘taking leave’ of kith and kin! This is odd. You resolve to lay down the body in the pursuit of the ideal, but, you are considering how to get the permission of men who are related to you through the body. These bonds cannot help Sadhana. They can never liberate you. Bundle them up and sink them deep. Move out of this place with just the clothes you wear. Do not waste a single moment of your life.”
Thus, Vidura advised him without mercy; he did not change the tune of his song; he emphasised the importance of immediate renunciation. Dhritharashtra was on his bed listening intently and ruminating on the next step. He said, “Vidura, what you say is quite true. I need not describe to you my special difficulties. This body is decrepit; these eyes are blind. I must have some one at least to guide my steps, isn’t it? Your sister-in-law has ‘blinded’ her eyes by a bandage, in order that she can share my handicap and suffer similarly. How can we two blind persons move about in the forest? We have to be dependent on others all our lives.”
Vidura saw the tears rolling down the cheeks of the old man; he pitied his plight, but he never revealed his pity. He said assuringly, “Well, I am prepared to take you to the forest: I am ready. What greater pleasure have I than releasing you from here, for this sacred purpose? Come, Arise, Start.” Vidura stood up. Dhritharashtra too rose from his bed and stood on the floor. Gandhari too stood by his side, with a hand on his shoulder. She pleaded, “Lord, I am also coming with you, ready for anything.”
But, Dhritharashtra said, “O, it is very hard to guard women in the jungle. The place is infested with wild beasts and life there is bound to be full of privation.” He spoke in this strain for a long time. But, she argued that she could not desert her lord, that she could stand the privations as much as he, that it was her duty to continue serving him until her death, that she was only following the tradition set up by the gems of Indian womanhood, that it is not Dharma to prevent her from observing her Dharma, that life in the zenana without him would be unbearable for her, that she would welcome instead, life in the jungle with her lord and demanded permission to accompany him.
Dhritharashtra was silent; he did not know what to say. It was Vidura who spoke. This is not the time to discuss the niceties; how can this lady who never stayed away from you a single moment, suddenly leave your company and live apart? It is not proper. Let her also come; we shall take her. For those who march forward to do austerities, there should be no fear or delusion, no hunger or thirst, no grief or suffering. It is not Thapas (asceticism) to complain of these or anticipate these. When the body itself is being disowned, what can privations do? Come, there is no justification for delay.” Vidura moved forward, leading Dhritharashtra, silently followed by Gandhari who had her hand on his shoulder. The saintly votary of God, Vidura, took the pair unnoticed by the guards and the citizens through the side streets and out beyond the city limits. He hurried them on so that they may reach the forest before dawn. But, the Ganga had to be crossed in a boat and no boatman was there to take them across before sunrise. So, they had perforce to wait on the bank of that holy river. Vidura made them rest for a while in a bower and himself arranged for a boat to take them all to the other bank in the dark.
Dhritharashtra and Gandhari reached the forest, along with Vidura. Vidura searched for a site where they could practise austerities. He also advised them on the best means of seeking self-realisation. They spent the days in holy company and holy thoughts.
Meanwhile in Hastinapura, as soon as the sun rose, Dharmaraja woke up, finished his ablutions and performed the ritual worship of the “Household Fire”. He gave away in charity the usual daily gifts to the needy. He then proceeded on foot towards the palace of Dhritharashtra, his paternal uncle, as was his wont, for he never began his daily round of duties without taking on his head the dust of his feet. The king and queen were not found in their chambers. So, he waited for some little time expecting them to return thereto, searching for them all around, even while he was waiting anxiously for their return. He noticed however that the beds were not slept upon, the pillows did not bear marks of use, the pieces of furniture were undisturbed. He doubted for a moment that the rooms might have been reset by someone after use, but, no. Some fear got hold of him that they must have left; so, he hurried towards the room of Vidura, to discover that he too had fled; his bed was unused.
The attendants reported that the sage did not return to his room from the king and queen or to whom he had gone. As soon as he heard this, Dharmaraja had a shock. He went back to the palace and searched every room with great care and his worst fears were confirmed. His hands and feet shivered in despair; his tongue became dry; words failed to emerge from his mouth. He fell on the floor, as if life had ebbed out. Recovering, he blabbered indistinctly. He called on Vidura, more than once, and the officers around him became afraid of his future. Everyone rushed to the presence, asking, “What happened?” sensing some calamity. They stood in a circle, awaiting orders from the master.
ust then, Sanjaya came there, all of a sudden. Dharmaraja rose and caught hold of both his hands and said “My parents have gone; alas, I found their chambers empty. Why did they behave like this? Have they disclosed anything to you, tell me. If I know where they have gone, I could fall at their feet and crave pardon for all my failings. Tell me quick Sanjaya, where have they gone.” He too had no knowledge of their whereabouts. He only knew that Vidura must be involved in the whole affair. He too shed tears and holding Dharmaraja’s hands in his, he said in a voice that shook with emotion, “Lord and master, believe me, I am speaking the truth. Of course, Dhritharashtra used to consult me and ask for my suggestions even in small matters; but, in this affair, he has acted without discussing with me or even informing me. I am struck with wonder at this act. Though I was near him, I did not in the least know about his journey. I cannot also guess why he should have done so. I never dreamt that he would deceive me thus. He showed me some respect and had some confidence in me. But he has played me false. I can only say that this is my bad luck”. Sanjaya started weeping like a child.
Dharmaraja consoled him, saying that it was really the consequence of his own sins, and not Sanjaya’s. “The extent of our bad luck can be gauged from this. Our father left us even while we were children; this uncle brought us up from that tender age. We were revering him and tending him, as both father and uncle. I must have perpetrated some error out of ignorance; I am incapable of doing so, consciously. Both uncle and aunt were broiling in the agony of the loss of their hundred sons. I was eager to offer them some little peace, and so, myself and my four brothers were wholeheartedly serving them so that they might not remember the anguish of their terrible loss. We took care that no little point was missed while serving them. There was no diminution of reverence or affection. Alas, that they should have left this place! What a tragedy, what a terrible blow!”, lamented Dharmaraja.
“My uncle and aunt are both aged and weak; besides, they are blind. I cannot understand how they managed to leave this place. How they must be suffering now! Not even one attendant accompanied them. Of what benefit are these large numbers that I have? Groping along, they might have fallen into the Ganges, by now. O, how unlucky I am! I fostered them both like the apple of the eye and at last, I have allowed them to meet this tragic fate.” Dharmaraja was beating his breast and expressing his deep distress.
The brothers heard the lamentation and they flew fast to the side of the weeping Dharmaraja. Kunthi, the mother, also inquired anxiously the reason for the grief. She peeped into the chambers and, not finding Gandhari or her brother-in-law, she asked Sanjaya what had happened to them. Sanjaya could not reply; he could only shed tears. “Where have they gone, in their aged and helpless condition? Tell me,” she cried; but no one could answer. Meanwhile Dharmaraja called the brothers to his side and made some gestures which they could not understand aright. Then, he mustered courage and rose from the ground. He managed to narrate to them the happenings since sunrise; he asked Bhima to send force in all directions to search for them and find them for they would not have gone far, since they were blind and could not travel fast; they must be groping their way.
Bhima, Nakula and Sahadeva obeyed their brother’s order and sent troops in all directions. They rummaged all the roads, lanes and by-lanes, peeped into wells, searched in all tanks and lakes, but could find no trace of the blind couple. Believing that they must have fallen into the Ganges, they got experts to scour the banks and even dive into the waters to discover their fate. All their efforts were in vain. So, the Pandava brothers were sunk in grief that they could not save the king and queen from that horrid fate.
Meanwhile, Dhritharashtra and Gandhari were joyfully contemplating on God, seated in prescribed postures with their mind rigorously under control. When they were thus lost in divine contemplation and immersed in that supreme joy, a huge forest fire swept along, consuming them too in its fierce onslaught.
Vidura had a great desire to cast off his body at the holy centre of Prabhasakshethra he was escaped from the fire and filled with peace of theSupreme Paramatman , he continued his pilgrimage and reached the place which he had chosen as the scene of his exit. There, he cast off his body which was composed of the five elements, and which, therefore, was material and momentary.
VIDUR – NEETI words of Wisdom
Vidur neeti considered as a Sacred text.It classfies the Satya Dharma & Nayaa the most impotant three qualities a noble and righteous man must have.
IMPORTANCE OF THREE
TRAYA EVADHANA RAAJAN BHARYAA DAASASTATHA SUTAH ||
YATTE SAMADHIGACHCHHANTI YASYA TE TASYA TADDHANAM ||
(Vidur says to king Dhritarashtra that wife, son and servant do not have the authority over the wealth, they earn because they themselves are under the authority of Husband, Father and Master respectively).
HARNAM CHA PARSWAANAAM PARDAARABHIMARSHANAM ||
SUHRIDASCHA PARITYAAGASTRAYO DOSHAH KSHAYAVAHAH ||
(One who takes away others wealth by deceit, developed intimacy with women other than his own wife and abandons a kind and gentle friend is doomed)
TRIVIDHAM NARKASYEDAM DWAARAM NAASHANMAATMANAH ||
KAAMAH KRODHASTATHA LOBHASTASMAADETATTRAYAM TYAJET ||
(KAAMA (LUST), KRODHA (ANGER) AND LOBHA (GREED) must be shunned by a man as these three destroy the AATMA (soul) and are the three doors of the Hell)
VARPRADAANAM RAAJYAM CHA PUTRAJANM CHA BHARAT ||
SHATROSHCHA MOKSHANAM KRICHCHHRAATTRIINI CHAIKAM CHA TATSAMAM ||
(The joys of getting a boon, acquiring a state and birth of a son even if combined cannot match the joy of being released from the ruthless clutches of an enemy)
DEVATANAM CHA SANKALPAMANUBHAVAM CHA DHEEMATAAM ||
VINAYAM KRITVIDDYAANAAM VINASHAM PAAPAKARMANAAM ||
(Resolution made to realize god, influence of an intelligent person, humility of a learned person and annihilation of the sinners give instant results)
ABANDONMENT AND ACCEPTANCE OF FOUR THINGS
CHATWARI RAAGYA TU MAHAABALEN, VARJYAANYAAHUH PANDITAASTAANI VIDDYAAT ||
ALPAPRAGYAI SAHA MANTRAM NA KURYANNA DEERGHASUTTRAI RABHASAISHCHAARNAISCCHA ||
(Vidur says to Yudhishtir that one must not take secret advice from an intelligent, a procrastinator, a man who is always in hurry and a false admirer. These four are worth abandoning for an emperor. A learned man must recognize these people)
CHATWARI TE TAAT GRIHE VASANTU SHRIYAABHI JUSHTASYA GRIHASTHADHARME ||
VRIDDHO GYATIRVASANNAH KULINAH SAKHA DARIDRO BHAGINI CHAANPATYAA ||
(Vidur says to Dhritarashtra ” O King, Goddess Laxmi showers blessings on such homes where senior most member of the family is protected, where a high caste man fallen in bad times, a money-less friend and a childless sister are given refuge and shelter)
ARCHAYEDEVA MITRANI SATI VAASATI VAA DHANE ||
NAANARTHAYAN PRAJAANAATI MITRAANAAM SAARPHALGUTTAM ||
(Whether one has or does not have wealth, he must be hospitable to his friends. One should never demand anything from their friends, trying to examine their worthiness)
USELESSNESS OF SORROW (SANTAAPA)
SANTAAPAAD BHRASHYATE ROOPAM ||
SANTAAPAADA BHRASHYATE BALAM ||
SANTAAPAADA BHRASHYATE GYAANAM ||
SANTAAPAADA VYAADHIMRICHCHHATI ||
(Sorrow destroys beauty (Roopa), Power (Balaa) is destroyed by SANTAAPA (sorrow), GYAN (KNOWLEDGE) is destroyed by sorrow. Due to sorrow, man becomes diseased (ROGI))
ANAVAAPYAM CHA SHOKEN SHAREERAM CHOPATAPYATE ||
AMITRAASHCHA PRAHRISHYANTI MAA SMA SHOKE MANAHKRITHAAH ||
(One does not get aspired things by mourning about it, it only causes pain to the body and ones enemies rejoice. Hence your heart should be free of sorrow)
SUKHAM CHA DUHKHAM CHA BHAVAABHAVOW CHA ||
LAABHAALAABHO MARANAM JEEVITAM ||
PARYAAYASHAH SARVAMETE SPRISHANTI ||
TASMAADA DHEERO NA CHA HRISHYENNA SHOCHET CHA ||
(Everyone undergoes the cycle of Joy- Sorrow, creation-destruction, gain-loss and life-death one by one. Hence a DHEERA (patient) man must not either be happy for them or mourn for them)
NA VISHVAASAAJJAATU PARASYA GEHE ||
GACCHENNARASCHETAYAANO VIKAALE ||
NA CHATVARE NISHI TISHTHENNIGOODHO ||
NA RAAJKAAMYAAM YOSHITAM PRARTHAYEETA||
(An alert man should never visit such a man’s home during the evenings who is untrustworthy. He should not try to hide himself at the cross road, in the night as there is a chance of getting caught and he should not try to acquire that woman in which the king is interested as there is a certainty of persecution)
EIGHT QUALITIES OF A MAN
ASHTAOW GUNAAH PURUSHAM DEEPAYANTI ||
PRAGYAA CHA KAOULYAM CHA SHRUTAM DAMASHCHA ||
PARAAKRAMASHCHAABAHUBHAASHITAA CHA ||
DAANAM YATHASHAKTI KRITAGYATAA CHA ||
(The following eight qualities increases the SHOBHA (splendour) of a man- BUDDHI (intelligence), KULINTAA (nobility), SHASTRAGYAAN-knowledge of scriptures, INDRIYANIGRAHA (control of the senses), PARAKRAMA (Bravery), Little talk, charity according to his ability and KRITAGYATAA (gratefulness)
ADVANTAGES OF BATHING DAILY
GUNAA DASHA SNAANSHEELAM BHAJANTE ||
BALAM ROOPAM SWARAVARNAPRASHUDDHIH ||
SPARSHASHCHA GANDHASHCHA VISHUDDHTAA CHA ||
SHRIH SAOUKUMAARYAM PRAVARAASHVA NAARYAH ||
(One who takes his bath daily increases his BALA (power), ROOPA (beauty and splendour), gets sweet voice, becomes fairer, achieves KOMALTAA (tenderness), SUGANDHA (fragrance), PAVITRATAA (purity), SHOBHA (splendour) and SUKUMARATAA (delicacy)
THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING FOOD MODERATELY
GUNAASHCHA SHANMITABHUKTAM BHAJANTE ||
AAROGYAMAAYUSHCHA BALAM SUKHAM CHA ||
ANAAVILAM CHAASYA BHAVATYAPATYAM ||
NA CHAINAMAADDYOON ITI KSHIPANTI ||
(One who has food moderately has the following six advantages, not only is he healthy, gets long life (AAYU), strength (BALA) and HAPPINESS (SHUKHA), but also his children are blesse with beauty and no one makes fun of him for eating too much)
DUTY OF A MAN
UTPAADDYA PUTRAANANRINAANSHCHA KRITVAA ||
VRITTIM CHA TEBHYONUVIDHAAYA KAANCHIT ||
STHAANE KUMAAREEH PRATIPAADDYA SARVAA ||
ARANYASAMSTHOTHA MUNIRBUBHUSHET ||
(After giving birth to a son, clearing all their debts, managing a means of earning a livelihood for them, then after arranging the marriages of his daughters, he should lead the life of a recluse in the forest)
NA SHRADDHAATI KALYAANAM PAREBHYOPYAATMASHAMKITAH ||
NIRAAKAROTI MITRAANI YO VAI SO DHAMAPURUSHAH ||
(One who does not believe in KALYAAN (benediction) done by others because of his disbelief in himself keeps his friends away and undoubtedly is an ADHAM (mean) man.)
UTTAMAANEVA SEVETA PRAAPTAKAALE TU MADHYAMAAN ||
ADHAMAANSTU NA SEVETA YA ICHCHHEDA BHUTIMAATMANAH ||
(One who wants his own advancement must do service UTTAM (supreme, best) quality man, If situation so arises, he can also do service to the MADHYAMA (medium) man, but he must never serve an ADHAMA (mean) man)
DEVADRAVYAVINAASHENA BRAHMSVAHARANEN CHA ||
KULAANYAKULATAAM YAANTI BRAHMANAATIKRAMENA CHA ||
(Destroying wealth concerned with the deities, stealing a Brahmin’s wealth and dishonouring him makes the highest caste, a KOOLA and mean (ADHAMA)
AKASMAADEVA KUPYANTI PRASEEDANTYANIMITTATAH ||
SHEELAMETADASAADHUNAAMBHRAM PAARIPLAVAM YATHA ||
(The nature of a wicked man is restless (CHANCHAL) like the clouds, all of a sudden, they become angry and happy without any apparent reason)
YADI SANTAM SEVATI YADDASANTAM ||
TAPASVINAM YADI VAA STENAMEVA ||
VAASO YATHA RANGAVASHAM PRAYAATI ||
TATHAA SA TESHAAM VASHAMBHYUPAITI ||
(Just as clothes can be coloured in whichever colour, one wishes, similarly if a man serves a SAJJANA (gentleman), ASSAJANA (evil man), TAPASVI (an ascetic) or an evil, he gets influenced by each of them that is man is influenced by the company he keeps)
NAAKROSHI SYANNAAVAMAANEE PARASYA ||
MITRADOHEE NOTA NEECHOPASEVEE ||
NA CHAABHIMAANEE NA CHA HEENAVRITTO ||
RUKSHAAM VAACHAM RUSHATEEM VARJAYEETA ||
(Neither use foul language on others nor show disrespect to him. Never have enmity with MITRA (friends) and never do a SEVA (service) to a NEECHA (degenerate man), never be lacking in SADAACHAAR, morality and arrogant (ABHIMAAN). Shun dry and angry speech (VAANI))
ARUNTUDAM PARUSHAM RUKSHAVAACHAM ||
VAAKKANTAKAIRVITUDANTAM MANUSHYAAN ||
VIDDYADALAKSHMIKATAMAM JANAANAAM ||
MUKHE NIBADDHAAM NIRRITIM VAI VAHANTAM ||
POWER OF SPEECH
ROHTE SAAYAKAIRVIDDHAM VANAM PARASHUNAA HATAM ||
VAACHA DURUKTAM BIBHATSAM NA SANROKSHATI VAAKSHATAM ||
(A forest even if pierced with arrows and cut with the axe flourishes again but a wound caused by bitter speech never heals)
VAAKSAAYAKAA VADANAANNISHPATANTI YAIRAAHATAH SHOCHITA RAATRYAHAANI ||
PARASYA NAAMARMASU TE PATANTI TAAN PANDITO NAAVASRIJET PAREBHYAH ||
(The VACHANA (SPEECH) is like a BAANA (ARROW). Both of them hurt the heart of a man, as a result of which, the man who has been hurt is badly affected day and night. Hence a learned man should be cautious while speaking)
YADI SANTAM SEVATI YADDASANTAM ||
HANTI JAATAANJAATAANSHCHA HIRANYAARTHENRITAM VADAN ||
SARVAM BHOOMYANRITE HANTI MAA SMA BHOOMYANTRITA VADEH ||
(One who tells a lie to acquire gold, sends all his past and future generations into hell. One who tells a lie to acquire BHOOMI (land) and STHREE (woman) looses everything and is doomed)
IDENTIFICATION OF A MAN
TRINOLKAYAA GYAYATE JAATARUPAM ||
VRITTEN BHADRO VYAVAHAAREN SAADHUH ||
SHOORO BHAYESHVARTHAKRICHCHHRESSHU DHEERAH ||
(Gold is tested in the fire for identification. A virtuous man is identified by his SADAACHAAR (morality). A sage (SAADHU) is identified by his VYAVAHAAR (behaviour). A brave man is identified in BHAYA (fear) that is in dangerous and challenging situation, a DHEERA (patient) man is identified when he is confronted by economic problems, enemies and friends are identified in difficult and trying times)
SAMPANNATARAMEVAANNAM DARIDRA BHUNJATE SADAA ||
KSHUT SWADUTAAM JANAYATI SAA CHAADHYESHU SUDURLABHAA||
(Poor (Daridra) people always have tasty food because the intensity of hunger in them is greater than the rich people. On the contrary, rich people, inspite of having all the varieties of food lack hunger)
PRAAYEN SHRIMATAAM LOKE BHOKTUM SHAKTIRNA VIDDYATE ||
JEERYANTYAPI HI KAASHTHANI DARIDRAANAAM MAHEEPATE ||
(Vidur says to king Dhritarashtra that O king, in this world, the rich people do not have the power of hunger whereas the poor people can digest even a piece of wood that is hunger is directly related to physical activities)
AVRITTIRBHAYAMANTYAANAAM MADHYAANAAM MARNAAD BHAYAM ||
UTTAMAANAAM TU MARTYAANAAMAVAMAANAAT PARAM BHAYAM ||
(The lowest type of people fear the absence of means of earning their livelihood, the medium type fear death but the highest type fear disgrace and dishonour)
VASHYENDRIYAM JITAATMAANAM DHRITADANDAM VIKAARISHU ||
PAREEKSHYA KAARINAM DHEERMATYANTAM SHRINIRSHEVATE ||
(Laxmi, (Goddess of fortune) is always in the service of three types of people. One whose senses are under control, one who gives punishment to the wrong doers and who does work with great examination and inspection)
RATHAH SHAREERAM PURUSHASYA RAAJANNAATMAA NIYANTENDRIYAANYASYA CHAASHVAAH ||
TAIRAPRAMATTAH KUSHALEE SADASHVAIRDAANTAIH SUKHAM YAATI RATHEEVA DHEERAH ||
(Vidur says to Dhritarashtra that O king, man’s body is just like a RATHA (chariot), INTELLIGENCE (BUDDHI) like a charioteer (SAARATHI) and senses are its horses. One, who controls all these three travels happily in this world, just like the charioteer who has controlled the horses of the chariot)
ETAANYANIGRIHEETAANI VYAAPAADYITUMAPYALAM ||
AVIDHEYAA IVAADAANTAA HAYAAH PATHI KUSAARATHIM ||
(Just like the untrained and uncontrollable horses overthrow the charioteer on the path, similarly the senses if uncontrollable have the capacity to kill a man)
DHARMAARTHO YAH PARITYAJYA SYAADINDRIYAVASHAANUGAH ||
SHRIPRAANADHANADAAREBHYAH KSHIPRAM SA PARIHEEYATE ||
(One who is under the influence of the senses, after abandoning religion (DHARMA) and its meaning (ARTHA) looses AISHWARYA (fortune), PRAN (life), DHAN (wealth) and STREE (wife) quickly)
AATMAA HYEVAATMANO BANDHURAATMAIVA RIPURAATMANAH ||
(One should try to understand his real self by controlling MANA (mind), BUDDHI (intelligence), INDRIYA (senses) because the soul only is one’s friend and enemy)
IMPORTANCE OF ‘FIVE’
PANCHAIVA PUJAYAMLLOKE YASHAH PRAPNOTI KEVALAM ||
DEVAAN PITRIN MANUSHYAANSHCHA BHIKSHUNATITHIPANCHAMAAN ||
(A man must always be in the service of FIVE Agnis that is MOTHER, FATHER, FIRE, SOUL AND PRECEPTOR as all these five are worth revering like Agni (Fire)
(Laxmi, (Goddess of fortune) is always in the service of three types of people. One whose senses are under control, one who gives punishment to the wrong doers and who does work with great examination and inspection)
PANCHA TVAANUGAMISHYANTI YATRA YATRA GAMISHYASI ||
MITTRAANYAMITTRAA MADHYASTHAA UPAJEEVYYOWPAJEEVINAH ||
(Being in the service of DEVATA (DEITIES), PITAR (ANCESTORS), MANUSHYA (MAN), SANYASI (HERMIT) AND ATITHI (GUEST) helps to achieve fame and admiration)
PANCHENDRIYASHCHA MATYARSHCHA CHIDRAM CHEDEKAMINDRIYAM ||
TATOSYA SRAVATI PRAGGYA DRITAH PATTRADIVODAKAM ||
(Just as a hole in MASHAK (a leather water bag) results in a leakage of water, in the same way, if any of the five sensory organs become faulty, then the intelligence is affected)
ABANDOMENT OF SIX BLEMISHES
SHAD DOSHAH PURUSHENEH HAATAVYA BHUTIMICHCHHTAA ||
NIDRA TANDRA BHAYA KRODH AALASYAM DIIRGHASUUTRATAA ||
(Six faults must be abandoned, NIDRA (SLEEP), TANDRA (NAP), BHAYA (FEAR), KRODHA (ANGER), AALASYA (LAZINESS) and DIIRGHASUUTRATA (PROCRASTIANTION)
SHADIMAAN PUROSHO JAHYAAD BHINNAN NAAVAMIVAARNAVE ||
ARAKSHITAAR RAAJAANAM BHAARYAAM CHAAPRIYAVAADINIIM ||
GRAAMAKAAMAM CHA GOPAALAM VANAKAAMAM CHA NAAPITAM ||
(One must abandon a non-preaching master (one who does not chant sacred mantras while doing oblations in the sacrificial fire (HOTA). A king who is not protective, a milkman who has a desire to live in the village that is he does not want to go out of the village to graze his cattle, an impetuous woman and a barber who has a desire to live in a forest, in the same way as a person abandons a sinking boat)
ACCEPTANCE OF SIX QUALITIES
SHADAIVA TU GUNAA PUNSAA NA HAATAVYAH KADAACHAN ||
SATYA DAAN MANAALASYAM ANASUUYAA KSHAMAA DHRITIH ||
(A man must never abandon Satya (Truth), Daan (charity), Karmanyataa (Activity), Anusuyaa (habit of finding faults even in the good qualities of others), Kshama (forgiveness) and Dhairya (Patience)
ARTHAAGAMO NITYAMAROGITAA CHA PRIYAA CHA BHAARYAA PRIYAVAADINI CHA ||
VASHYASHCHA PUTTRORTHAKAREE CHA VIDDYA SHAD JEEVALOKASHYA SUKHANI RAAJAN ||
(A man is fortunate if he has wealth, good health and non-diseased body, a favouring and loving wife and obedient son and a Vidya (knowledge) which is capable of earning money and wealth. These six things makes his life happy and full of joy)
SHASHNAAMAATMANI NITYAANAAMAISHVARYA YODHIGACHCHHATI ||
NA SA PAPAIH KUTONARTHAIRYUJYATE VIJITENRIYAH ||
PANCHENDRIYASHCHA MATYARSHCHA CHIDRAM CHEDEKAMINDRIYAM ||
TATOSYA SRAVATI PRAGGYA DRITAH PATTRADIVODAKAM ||
(Six enemies which are ever present in our minds must be controlled KAAM (LUST), KRODHA (ANGER), LOBHA (GREED), MOHA (ATTACHMENT), MADA (ARROGANCE) AND MAATSARYA (JEALOUSY). This control saves us from being a sinner)
(The following six types of persons earn their livelihood from six types CHOR (THIEF) earns from a careless person, VAIDYA (DOCTOR) earns from a sick person, women full of lust from lusty men, a priest from the YAJAMANA (HOST), a king from his subjects and a learned man from Ignorants)
IIRSHYEE GHRINEE SANTUSHTAH KRODHANO NITYASHANKITAH ||
PARBHAAGYOPAJEEVII CHA SHADETE NITYADUKHITAA ||
(Six types of persons are always in misery. IRSHYA (one who is envious), one who hates, an unsatisfied man, one who is always angry, one who is always suspicious and one who lives on the fortunes of others)
SHADETE HYAVAMANYANTE NITYAM PURVOPAKAARINAM ||
AACHAARYAM SHIKSHITAAH SHISHYAAH KRITADAARAASHCHA MAATARAM ||
NAARIIM VIGATAKAAMAASTU KRITAARTHAASHCHA PRAYOJAKAMA ||
NAAVAM NISTEERNAKAANTAARAA AATURAASHCHA CHIKITSAKAM ||
(The following six people show disrespect to their benefactors. A student to his teacher, after the completion of his studies, a married son to his mother, a man to a woman after his sexual urges are satisfied, KRIITKAARYA PURUSH (a man who has satisfactorily discharged his duties to his assistant, a man who has crossed the river to the boat and a sick man to the doctor after his ailment is cured)
SADBHIRMANUSHYAIH SAHA SAMPRAYOGAH ||
SHAD JEEV LOKASYA SUKHAANI RAAJAN ||
(Vidur explains to king Dhritarashtra that there are six happenings, to be free of diseases, not to be in debt, not to be forced by the circumstances to live in an alien land, being fortunate to have company of good people to earn livelihood by the help of his profession and living without any fear)
SEVEN DEMERITS OF A KING
SAPTADOSHAAH SADAA HAATAVYAA VYASANODAYAAH ||
PRAAYASHAA YAIVIRNASHYANTI KRITMOOLAA APEESHVARAA ||
STRIYOKSHAA MRIGAYAA PAANAM VAAKPAARUSHYAM CHA PANCHAMAM ||
MAHACHHA DANDAPAARUSHYAMARTHADUSHANAMEVA CHA ||
(A king should abandon his lust for women, gambling, hunting, intoxication, speaking harshly, giving severe punishment and misusing wealth otherwise even well established kingdom is doomed)
NAVADWAARMIDAM VESHMA TRISTHUNAM PANCHASAAKSHIKAM ||
KSHETRAGYAADHISHTHITAM VIDVAAN YO VEDA SA PARAH KAVIH ||
(One who considers the body which has nine openings that is eye, ear etc. three pillars VAATA (WIND), PITTA (BILE) AND KAFA (PHLEGM) and five witnesses (sensory organs) as the home of the Atma (soul is the real GYANI (KNOWER)
DASHA DHARMAM NA JANANTI DHRITRAASHTRA NIBODHATAAN ||
MATTAH PRAMATTA UNMATTAH SHRAANT KRUDDHO BUBHUKSHITAH ||
TVARMAANASHCHA LUBDHASHCHA BHEETAH KAAMI CHA TE DASHA ||
TASMAADETESHU SARVESHU NA PRASAJJETA PANDITAH ||
(Vidur says to Dhritarashtra that ten types of persons are ignorant about religion, an intoxicated man, an incautious man, a mad man, a tired man, an angry man, a hungry man, a man in a hurry, greedy man, a man full of fear and a lustful man. Hence a learned man should not develop intimacy with these type of people)
CHIKEERSHITAM VIPRAKITAM CHA YASYA ||
NAANYE JANAAH KARMA JAANANTI KINCHIT ||
MANTRE GUPTE SAMYAGANUSHTHITE CHA ||
NAALPOPYASYA CHYAVATE KASCHIDARTHAH ||
(One who conceals his thoughts in his heart which are favourable to him and unfavourable to others that is he wants to accomplish some task and others do not want it to be accomplished and who maintain secrecy of his mantras, get their work accomplished without any hindrance)
PRAAPYAAPADAM NA VYATHATE ||
KADAACHIDUDDYOGAMANVICHCHHATI CHAAPRAMATTAH ||
DUKHAM CHA KAALE SAHATE MAHAATMA ||
DHURANDHARASTASYA JITAAH SAPATNAAH ||
(One who is not dejected in times of any calamity but tries to endeavour his way out of that calamity and who has the capacity to bear pain, no enemy can defeat him)
NA SVE SUKHE VAI KURUTE PRAHARSHAM ||
NAANYASYA DOOHKHE BHAVATI PRAHRISHTAH ||
DATTVA NA PASHCHAATKURUTENUTAAPAM SA KATHYATE ||
(One who does not become happy in his own happiness who does not
rejoice in others misery is called a moral man)
BHAKSHAYOTTAMPRATICHCHHANNAM MATSYO VADISHAMAAYASHAM ||
LOBHABHIPAATEE GRASATE NAANUBANDHAMAVEKSHATE ||
YACHCHHAKYAM PRASITUM GRASYAM GRASTAM PARINAMECHCHA YAT ||
HITAM CHA PARINAAME YAT TADADDYAM BHOOTIMICHCHHATAA ||
(Just as a fish is lured by the bait without realizing the consequences of its action, in the same way man should eat only those kinds of food that are worth eating and which can be digested and also has a good effect on the body that is devouring food indiscriminately has bad effects on the body. He should not be like a fish otherwise he will meet the same fate)
YADTAPTAM PRANAMATI NA TAT SANTAAPAYANTYAPI ||
YACHCHA SWAYAM NATAM DAARU NA TAT SANNAMAYANTYAPI ||
(Those metals which can be moulded even without heating are not heated that is an intelligent man should never confront a person who has more strength than him)
SATYEN RAKSHYATE DHARMO VIDDYA YOGEN RAKSHYATE ||
MRIJAYAA RAKSHYATE ROOPAM KULAM VRITTEN RAKSHYATE ||
(Satya (Truth) protects the Dharma (religion), Yoga protects the VIDDYA (knowledge), cleanliness protects the beauty and MORALITY (SADAACHAR) protects the Kula (generation)
YA IIRSHUH PARVITTESHU ROOPE VIRYE KULAANVAYE ||
SUKHASAUBHAGYASATKAARE TASYA VYADHIRANANTAKAH ||
(One who envies others DHAN (wealth) ROOPA (beauty), PARAKRAMA (bravery), KULINTAA (nobility), SUKH (pleasures), SAUBHAGYA (good fortune),SAMMAAN (respect). This ailment of his is incurable)
AADHYAANAAM MAANSAPARAMAM MADHYAANAAM GORASOTTARAM ||
TAILOTTARAM DARIDRAANAAM BHOJANAM BHARATARSHABHA ||
(Vidur says to Dhritarashtra that the chief constituent of the food taken by the rich people, intoxicated by the power of their wealth is MAANSA (MEAT), the medium class people’s food mainly consists of GORASA (MILK) and the chief ingredients of the poor people’s food is TAILA (OIL))
CONTROLLING EXCESSIVE ANGER AND JOY
SANNIYACCHATI YO VEGAMUTTHITAM KRODHAHARSHAYOH ||
SA SHRIYO BHAAJANAM RAAJAN YASHCHAAPATSU NA MUHYATI ||
(Vidur says to Dhritarashtra O King, one who controls the forces of KRODHA (ANGER) AND JOY (HARSHA) and not lose his patience (DHAIRYA) even in the time of any calamity (AAPATTI), has the right of possessing wealth and fortune (RAAJALAKSHAMI))
from hindubooks.org urday.com & bhagvata vahini