[Odes on the Nine Planets]
[Planets are called Grahas in Sanskrit. According to the Hindu concept there are nine grahas viz. Sun (Adhithya), moon (Soma), Mars (Angaraka), Mercury (budha), Jupiter (Brahaspathi), Venus (Shuka), Rahu and Kethu. The last two of them are called shadow planets. These nine are deities (not planets) in the Vedas. The prayers to these deities occur mainly in Rig Veda and Atharvana Veda. A collection of such relevant prayers along with a ritual beginning is this prayer called Nava Graha Suktha. This is chanted to pacify / attract the nine planets and fulfill our wishes. It is interesting to note that in the prayer, they are not referred to as planets and most of the prayers are addressed to Indra and Agni (fire) who are both very powerful Vedic Gods and not to individual planets. The language and meter used in these Sukthas are in Vedic Sanskrit. Since my knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is not up to the mark, I have relied on the translation given by RL Kashyap (2007) in Veda Manthras and Sukthas of SAKSI, Bangalore. This translation is my own. The sukthas in Devanagari script are given in lansingtemple.org/navagrahas/prayers/NG%20Suktam.pdf. The text used by me slightly differs from what is given in the web site as I have relied on the text given in the above referred book. I have broken up the lines in to smaller ones while translating so that the meaning is more clear.]
Om Nava Graha Suktham
Om Shuklam baradaram vishnum sasi varnam chathur bujam
Prasanna vadanam dhyayeth sarva vignoba santhaye.
Dressed in white you are,
Oh, all pervading one,
And glowing with the colour of moon.
With four arms, you are, the all knowing one
I meditate on your ever-smiling face,
And pray, “ Remove all obstacles on my way”.
OM Bhoo, Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha. Om Jana. Om Thapa,
Om thathsa vithurvarenyam bhargo devasya deemahi dhiyo yona prachodayath,
Om AApa, jyothi rasa, bhoorbhuvaswarom
We meditate on the seven upper worlds and the great Mantra Gayathri.
Mamo partha duritha kshaya dwara Sri Parameshwara preethyartham Adithyadhi nava graha namaskaran Karishye.
For removing all my problems and pleasing Lord Parameshwara I am praying to Sun God and other nine planets,
I. Adithya [Sun God]
(Adithya is the Sun God and is the son of Sage Kashyapa and Adhithi. He is strong, splendid, bold, regal, warlike, victorious and energetic*. He travels in a chariot drawn by seven horses and his charioteer is Aruna.)
* The characteristics of all planets are mentioned By sage Aurabindo and are reproduced.
Om Aa krishnena rajasa varthamano
nivesayannamrutham marthya cha,
Hiranyayena savitha rathena aa devo yati,
Bhuvanani pasyan. 1
Moving through darkness,
Recognizing the mortal and immortal,
The God Savitha (Sun) comes in a golden chariot,
And sees the world.
Agnim dhootham vrunemahe,
Hotaram viswa vedasam,
Asya yagnasya sukrutham. 2
We choose the fire as the messenger,
Because he has the knowledge of entire world,
And also because he does perform yajna properly.
Yesham eesepasupathi pasoonaam,
Chathushpatham utha cha dvi padam,
Nishkeerthoyam yagniyam bhagamethu,
Rayasposha yajna manasya santhu. 3
Thus the lord of all beings sees,
The four legged and two legged beings,
Let him accept the refined sacrificial share,
And let the glorious wealth reach the performer of Yajna.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Adithyaya nama.
Om my salutations to sun God with all his peripheral gods.
II. Angaraka [Mars]
(This is the planet Mars also called as Kuja and Mangala. I could not trace his lineage. He is a politician, soldier, crafty, unscrupulous and tyrannical)
Om Agni moordha divah kakut,
Ayam aapam rethamsi jinwathi. 1
Om Fire is in the peak of heaven,
And is the consort (lord) of the earth,
And it sets in motion the essence of waters
Syona prithvi bhava.
Yacha na sharma sapradha. 2
Oh earth be happy,
Give us thorn less abode,
Which is wide and grants us refuge.
Kshethrasya pathina vayam hitheneva,
Jayamasi gam ashvam poshayitnva,
Saa no mrulathee drushe. 3
Through the master of the body who is friendly,
Be victorious,in getting that which nourishes our energy,
And let he appear to us gracious.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Angarakaya nama.
Om my salutations to Mars God with all his peripheral gods.
III. Shukra [Venus]
(Shukra is the planet Venus and is the son of sage Brugu. His mother’s name is Kavyaa. He was adopted as their Guru by the Asuras and he guided them in their wars with devas. He is self willed, lustful, master of state craft, poet, thinker and philosopher)
Om Pra va shukraya bhanave bharadhwam,
Havyam matim cha agnaya suputam,
Yo daivani manisha janumshi,
Anthar vishwani vidmana jigathi. 1
Bring the fire from the light of the sun, Oh Shukra,
Offer the brain as sacred offering in that purified fire,
Which travels with the knowledge of man,
Between the births in earth and heavens.
Indranim aasu naarishhu subhagam,
Na hi asya aparam chana jarasaa marate pati,
Viwasmad indra uttarah. 2
The wife of Indra is most blessed among women,
So I have heard,
For her consort will never die in any battle,
And he is the one who is supreme in this universe.
Indram viswahtahs pari,
Asmkam asthu kevalaa. 3
Indra is above the entire universe,
And all people give him oblations,
And let him be our only object of worship.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Shukraya nama.
Om my salutations to Shukra God with all his peripheral gods.
IV. Soma [Moon]
(He is the moon God and rose from the ocean of milk when it was churned. He is inconsistent, amorous, charming, imaginative and poetical.)
Om Gaurir mimaya salilani thakshathi,
Ekapadhi, dvipadhi sa chathushpadi,
Ashtapadi navapadi baboovushi,
SAhasrakshara parame vyoman. 1
Forming water of consciousness, the cow of speech is crafted,
In to one footed, two footed four footed,
And she who has become eight footed becomes nine footed,
And the one with thousand letters is supreme.
Samethu they viswatha soma vrushnyam,
Bhavaa vaajasya samgadhe, 2
Oh moon, grow with us,
Let your sparkling fire become united,
And be with us in our oblation.
Apsu may somo abraveedh,
Anthar viswani bheshaja,
Anim cha vishwa shambhuvam,
Aapascha viswabheshaji. 3
Moon has told me,
All medicines are in water,
And the fire bestows happiness of all,
And waters are the panacea.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Somaaya nama.
Om my salutations to moon God with all his peripheral gods.
V. Budha [Mercury]
(He is the planet Mercury. He is the illicit child of Moon and his teacher Brahaspathi’s wife. He is speculative scientific, skilful.)
Om Udhbhayasva agne prathi jagrahi,
Tvam ishta poorthe smsru medha mayam cha,
Puna krunvana pitara yuvana,
Anvaatham sithvayi thanthu metham. 1
Oh fire, be alert and conscious of us,
May you and the Lord of the yajna create the offering,
Make my father feel young again,
May he carry out the sacrifice supported by you.
Idam vishnur vichakrame,
Tredha ni thadhe padam,
SAmulham asya paamsure. 2
Thus Vishnu strode,
And placed his feet thrice,
And all were established in the dust of his feet,
Vishno raratmasi, vishno prashtamasi,
Vishno shjnapathra stho,
Vishno syoorasi, vishnor dhruvamasi,
Vaishnavam asi vishnava tva. 3
Yajna is the forehead of Vishnu. It is the back of Vishnu,
Yajna is the purifier acting for Vishnu,
Yajna is the thread of Vishnu, Yajna is the immortal Vishnu,
The principle of Vishnu exists and I want to be one with it.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Budhaya nama.
Om my salutations to Budha God with all his peripheral gods.
VI. Brahaspathi [Jupiiter]
(He is the planet Jupiter and the son of sage Angeeras. There is also a story that he is the son of Lord Brahma himself. He was adopted as their teacher by Devas. He is religious learned, and philosopher, wise and a statesman.)
Om Brahaspathe athi yad aaryao arhad,
Dhyumat vibhadhi kruthumajjanneshu,
Yad didhayat cchavasa rithaprajath,
Thad asmasu dravinam dehi chithram. 1
Oh Brahaspati, you do not deserve a foe,
You shine among holy people full of power,
You shine with the strength born out of truth,
You are the great treasure given to us, Oh son of truth.
Indra maruthwa eha pahi somam,
Yadha saaryathe apibha suthasya,
Thava praneethi thava soora sharman,
AAVivasvanthi kavaya suyajna. 2
Oh Indra, drink Soma along with Maruths,
As you are drinking it along with Sharayata,
Be pleased, oh heroic Brahmin,
The sages expert in Yagna are eager to serve you.
Brahma jajnaanaan pradhamam purasthaath,
Viseematha surucho vena aava,
Sabudhniya upama asya vishtaa,
Sathascha yonim asathascha viva. 3
The Sun was born first as an effect of the word,
His brilliance spreads over the entire world,
He has revealed every thing in various forms,
He has revealed the birth place of the visible and invisible.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Brihaspathyaya nama.
Om my salutations to Brahaspathi God with all his peripheral gods.
VII. Shanaischara [Saturn]
(He is the planet Saturn and the son of Sun God. He is lame and moves slowly. He is cruel, vindictive, gloomy, immoral and destructive.)
Om Sham no devir abheeshtaya,
aapo bhavanthu peethaye,
Sham yorabhi sravanthu na. 1
May the Goddess fulfill our wishes like water,
May our wishes be satisfied by drinking it,
May the waters flow blissfully towards our happiness.
Prajapathe na tvadethani aanyo,
Viswaa jaathani pari thaa bhabhoova,
Yath kamasthe juhumasthanno asthu,
Vayam syama pathayo rayeenam. 2
Oh creator, there is none like you,
You pervade all that has come in to being,
Let our desires rise to you as prayers,
May we become the lord of riches.
Imam yama prastharama hi seedha,
Anghirobhi pithrubhi samvidhana,
Aa thva mantra kavishastha vahanthu,
Yena rajan havisha madhayasva. 3
Oh Yama come and be seated on this altar,
Along with sage Angiras and the manes,
Let the mantras chanted by sages carry and bring thee,
And let this offering make you happy, Oh king.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Sanaischaraaya nama.
Om my salutations to Saturn God with all his peripheral gods.
(He is the son of sage Kasyapa and his Asura wife Simhika. When Vishnu as mohini and was distributing nectar to devas, he tried to get it by deceit. Lord Vishnu cut him in to two. Rahu is the head portion and Kethu the body part. He is violent, head strong, frank and furious.)
Om Kayaa naschithraa bhoovadhoothi,
SAda vrudha sakha,
Kayaa sachishtaya vruthaa. 1
How will Indra come to us, picturesque one,
Oh friend who is ever waxing,
And in company of the mighty ones.
AAyaam gow prashneer akramidha,
Asadan mataram pura,
Pitaram cha prayantsva. 2
The variegated cow of knowledge has come,
And sat before mother in the east,
And is advancing towards father’s heaven.
Yath they devi nirrytheera babanda dhama girvasu,
Idham they thad vishyam ayusho na madhyaath,
Adhaa jeeva pithumadhi pramuktha. 3
The bondage of Goddess niruthi is on your neck,
And should not be unchained,
But I will loosen it from the middle part of life,
And when it is loosened, you can eat Soma*.
*The elixir of the Gods.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Rahuve nama.
Om my salutations to Rahu God with all his peripheral gods.
(He is the son of sage Kasyapa and his Asura wife Simhika. When Vishnu as Mohini was distributing nectar to devas, he tried to get it by deceit. Lord Vishnu cut him in to two. Rahu is the head portion and Kethu the body part. He is secretive. meditative and unsocial.)
Om Kethum krunvanna kethave,
Pesho aarys aapesase,
Sam ushad bhir jayadhaa. 1
Oh strong one you create strength in the weak,
You give form to the one who has no form,
And you are born in the dawn of knowledge.
Brahma devaanaam padavi kaveenaam,
Rishir vipraanaam mahisho mrugaanaam,
Syeno grudhraanaa swadhithir,
Vanaanamm soma pavithra mathyerthi rebhan. 2
Brahma of the Gods is the leader among sages,
Sages among the wise are the bull among animals,
Hawk among vultures and self-law among delights
So sings Soma* among those who purify.
Sa chithra chithram chithayanthamasme,
Chithra kshathra chithrathamam vayodhaam,
Chandram rayim puruveeram bruhantham,
Chandra chandra abhirgunathe yuvasva. 3
Oh fire you are brilliant and join us with the brilliant treasures,
And find the growth through luminous nights,
Oh Chandra join him with very delightful words,
And have vast delightful wealth and keepers of heroes.
Om adhidevatha prathyadhidevatha sahithaya Kethubhyo nama.
Om my salutations to Kethu God with all his peripheral gods.
OM adithyadhi nava graham devathabhyo nama.
Om my salutations to the nine planet Gods lead by the Sun God.
Om Shanthi, Om Shanthi, Om Shanthi
Let there be peace, let there be peace and let there be peace.
Translated by P. R. Ramachander http://www.celextel.org